Documenting the claims

I have used a lot of information from different books in the articles I've written for this website. The books I have quoted can be purchased directly from their publisher. The quotes can be documented. You can obtain your own copy if desired.

The National Research Council's book, Nutrient Requirements of Dogs Revised 1985, is referred to in many of my articles. The claim that different breeds of dogs have different nutritional needs can be seen in tests cited on the following pages:

Page 3: "These data illustrate the marked effect on energy requirements imposed by the environment and the additional influence of differences in breed and behavior."

Page 9: "Estimates of the protein requirement of the dog can also vary depending on the methods and criteria used in their derivation."

Page 11: "Blaza et al. (1982) studied the sulfur amino acid requirements of growing Labrador and Beagle dogs in three experiments... These studies indicated that the dog's breed may influence methionine requirements, since Labradors but not Beagles responded to increasing the methionine content from 0.36 to 0.71 percent by increased weight gains and food intakes."

Page 16: In the section on Calcium... "Dogs of some types and breeds may perform satisfactorily on lower intakes of these minerals."... "It is recognized that there are many breeds of dogs, that they are maintained under a wide range of environments, and are being... "

Page 19: "Tinedt et al. (1979) reported a copper toxicosis in Bedlington Terriers fed commercial dog diets containing 5 to 10 mg. copper per kilogram of diet. Ludwig et al. (1980) studied this disease in considerable detail and concluded that it is unique to this breed of dog and is caused by a genetic abnormality." ... "The copper requirements for the majority of dog breeds appears to be quite low."

Page 20: "Sanecki et al. (1982) fed English Pointer pups a corn-soy based zinc-deficient diet and reported observing within 5 weeks lesions of ... These lesions were reversible by adding 200 mg. zinc carbonate per kilogram to the diet, with complete remission of the external lesions in 6 weeks".... "Fisher (1977) fed more than 800 Beagles 32 mg./kg zinc of diet (calcium concentration not noted) and did not report any clinical signs of zinc deficiency."

Page 24: "Kozelka et al. (1933) found that Collie puppies were protected from rickets by a 1 to 1.3 IU vitamin D (irradiated ergosterol) per kilogram of body weight per day. Arnold and Elvehjem (1939) found calcification to be normal in a growing Airedale puppy receiving a 1.39 percent calcium and a 1.05 percent phosphorus (Ca/P = 1.32:1) diet and 132 IU or less of vitamin D per kilogram of body weight per day showed that growth and bone mineralization were normal." ... "Fleischmann Laboratories (1944) reported that 28 IU vitamin D per kilogram of body weight daily was sufficient for Fox Terriers when using a dietary calcium:phosphorus ratio of 2.1:1. However, even with 270 IU per kilogram of body weight per day, Collies and Great Danes showed X-ray evidence of rickets."

The list of quotes I could use from the National Research Council's Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Revised 1985 which back up my claims that different breeds of dogs have different nutritional requirements is very long. Another interesting fact is that in all the tests throughout the entire government publication there is not one test cited where two different breeds of dog were used and found to have the same requirements for any one nutrient.

The National Research Council's book, Nutrient Requirements of Dogs Revised 1985, is also a good source to see how different sources of an ingredient can have different effects on a single animal. I make a claim about this in one article and the "About the Author" page of this website.

You can order a copy of National Research Council's, Nutrient Requirements of Dogs Revised 1985, from: National Academy Press - P.O. Box 285 - Washington, D.C. 20055. The National Academy Press also has on-line ordering at: The National Academy Press bookstore (Nutrient Requirements of Dogs Revised 1985)

The book, Canine Nutrition & Choosing The Best Food For Your Breed Of Dog, was also referred to in my articles. This is the book I wrote and that was published in 1997. The book is now out of print. All available copies have been sold. If you need to see a copy, check with your local library to see if they have one. If you would like to download a FREE copy that is posted on-line CLICK HERE.

The book, Official Publication, 1994, Association of American Feed Control Officials Incorporated, was quoted in many of my articles. The page numbers you would need to confirm any claims made in the articles; Who Regulates The Pet Food Industry; and AAFCO's Required Testing of Pet Foods, were listed in those articles. All of the IFN (International Feed Number) definitions I used in the article, Wording of Pet Food Labels, are direct quotes from this book and can be found there. IFN's are issued by the US Department of Agriculture after a food company has requested a number be assigned to a product that they might use. A complete list of IFN's with definitions should also be available from this agency. I ordered my copy of the, Official Publication, 1994, Association of American Feed Control Officials Incorporated, direct from the AAFCO Treasurer: Charles P. Frank, AAFCO Treasurer - Capitol Square - Atlanta, GA 30334

A good source for definitions of words like "By-product" or other label terms is your dictionary. The claim that the life span of a household pet is decreasing over the last 100 years can be verified by comparing breed books that list the life span of a breed. I used books on dog breeds that were published up to one hundred years ago and compared their information to the information about life expectancy of the same breeds in books published in the 1990's. These can be found at your library. Another good source of information about this is from breeders who can be found showing their dogs at AKC dog shows held around the country. Samples of all other ads, labels and books dealing with this subject matter can be found at news stands, the library, or any pet food retailer. I have a copy of any specific labels or ads I quoted in my articles. I also have copies of each one ready for an overhead projector since I use this form when I am giving talks on this subject. If the demand is great enough I will make those copies available at this website in the future.

I urge pet owners who decide to learn more about what is in their dog's or cat's food to think logically about who they can go to for UNBIASED information. A simple rule to follow is to consider the source. When you ask for nutritional information about a product from anyone, consider if the person you are asking is trying to make money by selling a food product. Then consider if that sales connection may be biasing the information they are giving you. Also ask about their nutritional training. What qualifies them to be giving nutritional advice. If they are a veterinarian do not assume that they have had nutritional training. Ask if they graduated from one of the schools that has a class on animal nutrition, or are they from one of the schools that does not have a class on animal nutrition? A survey of the 26 schools of veterinary medicine in the USA showed the average amount of training on animal nutrition provided in the curriculum to graduate with a D.V.M. totals five classroom lecture hours. The majority of the five hours is spent on dairy and beef cattle, poultry or swine production and horses. This can be confirmed by the college catalogs from the 26 schools.

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